How to make Varnishes

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The varnishes are used to protect the paintings and also to apply to them a matt, semi-matt bright effect. Some varnishes are just the tree’s resins that are dissolved with turpentine (or better essence of turpentine) and with smoth heat (into a water bath), or just leaving the resin some time to dissolve inside the turpentine.

Dammar resin

Dammar resin

The stones must rid resin powder before being thrust into the glass jar with turpentine where they will dissolve.

Finally the paintings in oils or oil-based paints, varnishes are used as follows:

Mastic resin varnish

– 250 g of mastic resin + 3/4 of a litre of turpentine.

Dammar varnish

The Dammar varnish is very strong and it’s use to do the Encaustic painting. We can do the Encaustic in two ways:

1. Hot mode:

Resin melted with bain-marie (water bath), consists in putting a container inside another container with water, and the big container is directly in contact with the heat.
It is heated by the hot water, which should not. The water warms with a medium-slow heat. This should be like this for safety because these resins and turpentine are flammable.

2. Cold mode:

We can leave the boat with Dammar and turpentine in a dark place for at least one month. The dammar will be dissolved inside the turpentine.

Three types:

  1. CRYSTAL VARNISH: Dammar 25% + 75% of turpentine.
  2. MATT WAX: Dammar 25% + 75% of turpentine + 2% of Virgin Wax.
  3. COPAL VARNISH: Dammar 25% + 75% of turpentine + 2% Rosin, also called colophony or Greek pitch + 5% of   flax or linseed



HOW TO DO THE VARNISH

DUTCH VARNISH

The ideal varnish also for glazing.

1. Easy script

– 1 amount of  flax or linseed cooked
– 1 amount of Dammar varnish
– 6 amounts of turpentine / Oil of turpentine

2. Heavy script

– 9 amounts of  Dammar varnish
– 9 amounts of trementina
– 4 amounts of  flax or linseed cooked
– 2 amounts of trementina of Venecia

3. Medium script

– 4 amounts of Dammar varnish
– 4 amounts of trementina
– 2 amounts of  flax or linseed cooked
– 1 amount of trementina of Venecia

MATT WAX VARNISH

Melting in a water bath

– 20 amounts of Dammar resin
– 60 amounts of turpentine
– 2 amounts of Virgin Wax.

SAPONIFICATED WAX VARNISH.

Melting in a water bath

– 250 c.c of hot water
– 10 cc of ammonia
– 25 grams of Virgin Wax.

We will use latex for the acrylic paintings

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